How do I Install Nginx on CentOS 8 Linux server? How can configure the latest version of Nginx web server on a CentOS Enterprise Linux 8 server using the CLI and host a static site?

Nginx [engine X] is a free and open-source high-performance web server. It also acts as a reverse proxy server and load balancer. This page shows how to install the Nginx server on a CentOS 8 and configure a static web site.

The procedure to install Nginx web server on a CentOS Linux 8 is as follows:

  1. Login to your cloud server or bare metal server using ssh command:
    ssh user@cloud-server-ip
  2. Search for Nginx package:
    sudo yum search nginx
  3. Install nginx package using the yum command on CentOS 8:
    sudo yum update
    sudo yum install nginx
  4. Update firewall settings and open TCP port 80 and 443. Run:
    sudo firewall-cmd –permanent –zone=public –add-service=https –add-service=http
    sudo firewall-cmd –reload

Let us see all commands and examples in details.

Step 1 – Update the system

Keeping your system, kernel, and the installed application is an essential sysadmin task. So update the system, run:
sudo yum updateinfo
sudo yum update
## Reboot the system if a new kernel update was installed ##
sudo reboot

Step 2 – Search for Nginx package

Is web server available in my Linux distro? Let us find out:
sudo yum search nginx
sudo yum list nginx

Last metadata expiration check: 1:09:02 ago on Sun Nov 24 17:24:15 2019. ============================== Name Exactly Matched: nginx ============================== nginx.x86_64 : A high performance web server and reverse proxy server ============================= Name & Summary Matched: nginx ============================= nginx-mod-mail.x86_64 : Nginx mail modules nginx-mod-stream.x86_64 : Nginx stream modules collectd-nginx.x86_64 : Nginx plugin for collectd nginx-mod-http-perl.x86_64 : Nginx HTTP perl module nginx-mod-http-xslt-filter.x86_64 : Nginx XSLT module nginx-mod-http-image-filter.x86_64 : Nginx HTTP image filter module nginx-filesystem.noarch : The basic directory layout for the Nginx server pcp-pmda-nginx.x86_64 : Performance Co-Pilot (PCP) metrics for the Nginx Webserver nginx-all-modules.noarch : A meta package that installs all available Nginx modules

What version of Nginx am I going to install? Get Nginx version information that you are going to install, execute:
sudo yum info nginx
Sample outputs:

Last metadata expiration check: 1:11:11 ago on Sun Nov 24 17:24:15 2019. Installed Packages Name : nginx Epoch : 1 Version : 1.14.1 Release : 9.module_el8.0.0+184+e34fea82 Arch : x86_64 Size : 1.7 M Source : nginx-1.14.1-9.module_el8.0.0+184+e34fea82.src.rpm Repo : @System From repo : AppStream Summary : A high performance web server and reverse proxy server URL : http://nginx.org/ License : BSD Description : Nginx is a web server and a reverse proxy server for HTTP, SMTP, POP3 and : IMAP protocols, with a strong focus on high concurrency, performance and : low memory usage.

Step 3 – Install Nginx on CentOS 8

To install the latest stable nginx server, run the following [nixmd name=”yum”]:
$ sudo yum install nginx

Install Nginx on CentOS 8 server
Installing Nginx on CentOS Enterprise Linux 8 server

Step 4 – Enable nginx server

First, enable nginx service by running systemctl command so that it starts at server boot time:
sudo systemctl enable nginx
Sample outputs:

Created symlink /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/nginx.service ? /usr/lib/systemd/system/nginx.service.

Start the service, run:
sudo systemctl start nginx

Commands to start/stop/restart nginx server

Start restart Nginx server command

Run command as per your needs.
sudo systemctl start nginx ## &lt-- start the server ##
sudo systemctl stop nginx ## &lt-- stop the server ##
sudo systemctl restart nginx ## &lt-- restart the server ##
sudo systemctl reload nginx ## &lt-- reload the server ##
sudo systemctl status nginx ## &lt-- get status of the server ##

Step 5 – Open port 80 and 443 using firewall-cmd

You must open and enable port 80 and 443 using the firewall-cmd command:
$ sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-service=http --add-service=https
$ sudo firewall-cmd --reload
$ sudo firewall-cmd --list-services --zone=public

CentOS 8 nginx open port TCP port 80 and 443
Firewall configuration to open http/https port

See “how to set up a firewall using FirewallD on CentOS 8” for more info

Step 6 – Test it

Verify that port 80 or 443 opened using ss command command:
sudo ss -tulpn
Sample outputs (look out for :80 and :443 lines) :

Netid State Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address:Port Peer Address:Port udp UNCONN 0 0 10.147.164.2%eth0:68 0.0.0.0:* users:((“NetworkManager”,pid=50,fd=15)) tcp LISTEN 0 128 0.0.0.0:80 0.0.0.0:* users:((“nginx”,pid=1316,fd=6),(“nginx”,pid=1315,fd=6),(“nginx”,pid=1314,fd=6)) tcp LISTEN 0 128 [::]:80 [::]:* users:((“nginx”,pid=1316,fd=7),(“nginx”,pid=1315,fd=7),(“nginx”,pid=1314,fd=7)) tcp LISTEN 0 128 [::]:443 [::]:* users:((“nginx”,pid=1316,fd=7),(“nginx”,pid=1315,fd=7),(“nginx”,pid=1314,fd=7))

If you do not know your server IP address run the following ip command:
ip a
Sample outputs:

1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000 link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00 inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever inet6 ::1/128 scope host valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever 6: eth0@if7: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UP group default qlen 1000 link/ether 00:16:3e:6b:8d:f7 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff link-netnsid 0 inet 10.147.164.2/24 brd 10.147.164.255 scope global dynamic noprefixroute eth0 valid_lft 3067sec preferred_lft 3067sec inet6 fe80::216:3eff:fe6b:8df7/64 scope link valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

So my IP address is 10.21.136.134. Fire a web browser and type the URL(domain name)/IP address:
http://10.147.164.2

Nginx running on a CentOS Enterprise Linux 8 server
Nginx running on a CentOS Enterprise Linux 8 server
Centos 8 Curl command demo

One can also use the curl command to get same info using the cli:
curl -I http://10.147.164.2
curl http://10.147.164.2

Step 7 – Configure Nginx server

  • CentOS 8 Nginx Config directory – /etc/nginx/
  • Master/Global config file – /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
  • TCP ports opened by Nginx – 80 (HTTP), 443 (HTTPS)
  • Document root directory – /usr/share/nginx/html

To edit files use a text editor such as vi command/nano command:
$ sudo vi /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
Sample outputs:

# For more information on configuration, see: user nginx; worker_processes auto; error_log /var/log/nginx/error.log; pid /run/nginx.pid;   # Load dynamic modules. See /usr/share/doc/nginx/README.dynamic. include /usr/share/nginx/modules/*.conf;   events { worker_connections 1024; }   http { log_format main ‘$remote_addr – $remote_user [$time_local] “$request” ‘ ‘$status $body_bytes_sent “$http_referer” ‘ ‘”$http_user_agent” “$http_x_forwarded_for”‘;   access_log /var/log/nginx/access.log main;   sendfile on; tcp_nopush on; tcp_nodelay on; keepalive_timeout 65; types_hash_max_size 2048;   include /etc/nginx/mime.types; default_type application/octet-stream;   # Load modular configuration files from the /etc/nginx/conf.d directory. # See http://nginx.org/en/docs/ngx_core_module.html#include # for more information. include /etc/nginx/conf.d/*.conf;   server { listen 80 default_server; listen [::]:80 default_server; server_name _; root /usr/share/nginx/html;   # Load configuration files for the default server block. include /etc/nginx/default.d/*.conf;   location / { }   error_page 404 /404.html; location = /40x.html { }   error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html; location = /50x.html { } } }

See Nginx server docs here.
You can upload or copy your html/css/js and images to /usr/share/nginx/html/
cd /usr/share/nginx/html/
sudo cp /backups/cyberciti.biz/*.html .
sudo cp /backups/cyberciti.biz/*.css .

Copy from local desktop to the remote server using the rsync command or scp command/sftp command:
rsync ~/projects/static/www.cyberciti.biz/prod/* your-username@10.147.164.2:/usr/share/nginx/html/

How to secure Nginx server

See “Top 25 Nginx Web Server Best Security Practices” and “40 Linux server security tips” for more info.

Conclusion

You just learned how to install, set up and configure Nginx server on a CentOS Enterprise Linux 8 server. In the next part of the series, I will show you how to install the latest version of PHP 7.x.x on a CentOS 8.

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